Spindle Bearing

The manufacturing of metal parts and components is so significant to any economic marketplace, typically, the machine tool industry is utilizing the latest technological advances in manufacturing processes. Here we’d like to talk about machine tool SPINDLE BEARING Most spindles use a combination of angular-contact ball bearings and cylindrical roller bearings. The angular-contact types install at a spindle work end because they handle both axial and radial loads. The other end houses a cylindrical roller bearing which, by design, floats or slips axially to compensate for spindle thermal expansion yet operates with zero radial clearance for rigidity. The basic requirements for spindle: High running accuracy High speed Wide range of speed High rigidity Low temperature rise High reliability Some of the above requirements are in confrontation, so it’s almost impossible for spindle to meet all the above requirements simultaneously. Therefore, the main performance of spindle should be taken into consideration when designing spindle supporting. Bearing types and matched method depend on machine tool different performances.

Needle Bearing Types

Needle bearings are roller bearings with rollers that have high length-to diameter ratios. They are used in farm and construction equipment, automotive transmissions, small gasoline engines, gear pumps, small appliance and tool motors, alternators, and aircraft controls. Needle bearings are roller bearings with rollers that have high length-to diameter ratios. They are used in farm and construction equipment, automotive transmissions, small gasoline engines, gear pumps, small appliance and tool motors, alternators, and aircraft controls. Needle bearings are usually lubricated with grease, but oil or oil-mist lubrication is preferred for heavy-duty or high-speed applications. Many light-duty bearings never require relubrication, but high loads or speeds demand it. Compared with other roller bearings, needle bearings have much smaller rollers for a given bore size. They have the highest load capacity for a given radial space of all rolling-element bearings, but their use is limited to bore diameters less than 10 in. All needle bearings are variations of two basic designs. The first, full complement, has a full complement of needles and contains no retainer. The second, caged needle, contains a retainer or cage for roller guidance and spacing. Caged bearings have smaller roller complements and lower load capacities than full-complement bearings. Their…

Needle roller bearings

Most rolling-element bearings are either ball or roller bearings. The roller bearing family consists basically of cylindrical, tapered, spherical, and needle bearings. Needle roller bearings are the smallest and lightest of the roller bearing family. That gives them specific advantages for certain applications, particularly those requiring reduced weight and space. The high roller length-to-diameter ratio helped give the bearings their name as well as their operating characteristics. Essentially, needle roller bearings have: • Higher load capacity than single-row ball or roller bearings of comparable OD.• The ability to handle a larger, more rigid shaft in a given application.• Excellent rolling characteristics within a small cross section.• Generally lower cost, especially for the drawn-cup type compared with machined versions. Needle rollers The most economical type of needle roller bearing is a full-complement of loose needle rollers assembled directly between a hardened and ground shaft and housing. Generally, hardened end washers provide axial location. This type appears in many applications such as those where a hardened and ground gear bore serves as the outer raceway. When application requirements are met and assembly is not difficult, a full complement of rollers forms a bearing of small cross section and high load capacity. It…

Heat Treatment of Bearing Steels

When bearing steels are in their soft (unhardened) state, metallurgists refer to their structure as being in the pearlite state. In order to harden the steel it must be heated to a very high temperature and then cooled very rapidly. When heated in the heat treat furnace to 1,750°F, the structure transforms from pearlite to what is known as austenite. After quenching (very rapid cooling), the structure then transforms from austenite to martensite. Once transformed to martensite, the steel becomes very hard. However, at this point it is not considered “thermally stabilized”. This is because not all of the austenite transforms into martensite during the quenching process. This phenomenon is called “retained “austenite”. If the steel is not thermally stabilized, the retained austenite will over an extended period of time (possibly years) transform into martensite. This transformation is accompanied by an increase in volume that is called metallurgical growth (not to be confused with thermal growth). Metallurgical Growth will cause a change in dimension and form of any steel parts such as bearings’ even at room temperature. While not a problem with low precision commodity type bearings, in high precision (ABEC 5P, 7P, 9P) miniature bearings this lack of dimensional…

The Advantages of Self-Lubricating Bushings

Self-lubricating bushings are used where the bearing must operate without lubricant or with marginal lubricant. Our focus is on ensuring that the bearing gives the best performance and the longest life under various conditions. The working principle of self-lubricating bearings is that, during the initial run-in period of the bearing, there will be a solid lubricating film created by the transfer of a small amount of material from the bearing layer. This film directly contacts the moving parts, protecting and lubricating the mating components and extending the service life of the bearing. Utilizing self-lubricating bushings can provide a number of benefits for end users to be aware of. These include: Elimination of oil holes and grooves – cost for machining oil holes and oil grooves is unnecessary. Self-lubricating eliminates the need for the extra oiling system. Reduction of the machinery running cost – with maintenance free features, the lubricant oil is dramatically reduced; machinery running cost will also be decreased. Maintenance-free operation – self-lubricating bearings solve the problem of oiling operation and oiling devices, also saving bearing maintenance costs. Simplified mechanical design and manufacture – with the above advantages, thin wall thickness, higher load, and excellent wear resistance, mechanical designs can be…

Service Life of Spherical Plain Bearings

In our previous blog entry, we examined static and dynamic load ratings for spherical plain bearings. This week, we continue our look into this bearing segment with some further information on the operating life of spherical plain bearings, and factors which can shorten or extend their use. The service life of a spherical plain bearing operated under mixed or dry friction conditions is determined by the increase in bearing clearance or bearing friction caused by progressive wear of the sliding surfaces, plastic deformation of the sliding material, or fatigue of the sliding surface. Depending on the application, the permissible wear or permissible increase in friction will be different. This means that under the same operating conditions the service life which can be obtained in practice will be different. The service life of a spherical plain bearing is the number of oscillating movements, or the number of operating hours, which the bearing will service before a defined increase in bearing clearance or a defined increase in friction is reached. The effective service life is that life which will be attained by a given spherical plain bearing under actual operating conditions. It is determined by the magnitude and type of load, but also by…

Dynamic and Static Load Ratings for Spherical Plain Bearings

Dynamic and static load ratings for spherical plain bearings are important for understanding the life of a bearing, but what do each specify? Read on to learn more about these important classifications. Dynamic Load Rating for Spherical Plain Bearings Dynamic load rating is used for calculations when the spherical plain bearing is subjected to dynamic stress. It represents the load, constant in magnitude and direction, under which a basic rating service life, expressed as a sliding distance, will be attained for continuous oscillating movement at a defined sliding velocity and at room temperature. This rating presupposes that the load acting on radial and angular spherical plain bearings and on rod ends is purely radial and that the load acting on spherical plain thrust bearings is purely axial and acts centrically. Dynamic stresses occur when tilting, oscillatory or rotational movements are made under load as well as micro-sliding movements under alternating loads, e.g. resulting from vibration, or loads which alternate at high frequency. The various types of dynamic stress often occur in combination. The values of load ratings are always dependent on the definition used. It is therefore not always possible to make direct comparisons with load ratings published by other…

Bearing FAQs

We have assembled a wide variety of frequently asked questions (FAQs) about bearings (e.g. ball bearings, roller bearings, plain bearings, linear bearings) and bearing related products (and bearing services too). Just refer to the question you’re interested in below and you will be taken to a remarkably succinct, straight-forward, and accurate answer: Q1: Can bearings be refurbished? Yes, but it depends… Generally speaking, for small bearings it is uneconomical to attempt to refurbish a bearing product. However, for larger size bearings (6 inch bore and above) there potentially could be economic gains. In particular, bearings such as slewing rings, cylindrical roller bearings, and spherical roller bearings are candidates for refurbishing. But beyond the accumulated wear there are many other factors involved in this financial decision including maintenance cycles, lubrication, MTBF, environmental considerations and more. Q2: What’s The Difference Between Bearing Seals And Shields? Seals and shields are both in place to keep contaminants out of a bearing. In order of effectiveness, the enclosures that are offered are as follows: metal shields, rubber non-contact seals, Teflon non-contact seals, and rubber contact seals. Not surprisingly, as the sealing performance is increased, the torque required to turn the bearing will also increase due…

Bearing rings and rolling elements materials

1) High carbon chromium bearing steel High carbon chromium bearing steel specified in JIS is used as a general material in bearing rings (inner rings, outer rings) and rolling elements (balls, rollers).Their chemical composition classified by steel type is given in “Table 13-1 Chemical composition of high carbon chromium bearing steel”.Among these steel types, SUJ 2 is generally used. SUJ 3, which contains additional Mn and Si, possesses high hardenability and is commonly used for thick section bearings.SUJ 5 has increased hardenability, because it was developed by adding Mo to SUJ 3.For small and medium size bearings, SUJ 2 and SUJ 3 are used, and for large size and extra-large size bearings with thick sections, SUJ 5 is widely used.Generally, these materials are processed into the specified shape and then undergo hardening and annealing treatment until they attain a hardness of 57 to 64 HRC. 2) Case carburizing bearing steel (case hardened steel) When a bearing receives heavy impact loads, the surface of the bearing should be hard and the inside soft.Such materials should possess a proper amount of carbon, dense structure, and carburizing case depth on their surface, while having proper hardness and fine structure internally.For this purpose, chromium steel…

Materials used for cages

Since the characteristics of materials used for cages greatly influence the performance and reliability of rolling bearings, the choice of materials is of great importance. It is necessary to select cage materials in accordance with required shape, ease of lubrication, strength, and abrasion resistance. Typical materials used for metallic cages are shown in Tables 13-3 and 13-4. In addition, phenolic resin machined cages and other synthetic resin molded cages are often used. Materials typically used for molded cages are polyacetal, polyamide (Nylon 6.6, Nylon 4.6), and polymer containing fluorine, which are strengthened with glass and carbon fibers. Koyo